Today Current Affairs English 21 January 2022

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Vikas Rocket Engine of ISRO

Why is it in the news?

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has completed a 25-second certification test for its Vikas engine, which will be used on the Gaganyaan mission.

The following is a description of Vikas Engine:

Vikas (Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai) rocket engines were created by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre in the 1970s after being conceived by the company’s founder.

 

  • The engine used in the design was a licenced Viking engine that was equipped with a chemical pressurisation system.
  • The most significant distinction is that the Vikas has a longer burn time.
  • The Vikas Engine is a heavy-duty liquid rocket engine that provides propulsion for spacecraft.

o The second stage of India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) (PSLV),

o The Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle’s second stage has four strap-on stages (GSLV), and the third stage has two strap-on stages (GSLV).

o The engine core liquid stage of the GSLV Mk-dual III’s main engine (L110).

A maximum thrust of 725 kN is achieved by using approximately 40 metric tonnes of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as an oxidizer in the engine’s design.

Epstein-Barr Virus

Why in the news?

  • The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the most common cause of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as reported in the news. Recent study has revealed that preventing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may be able to prevent the majority of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) cases, and that targeting EBV may lead to the discovery of a treatment or cure for the disease.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves that can be life-threatening (Central Nervous System).
  • A condition known as multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by the immune system attacking the protective coating (myelin) that surrounds nerve fibres, resulting in decreased communication between the brain and the rest of the body.
  • Nerve loss or degeneration may eventually occur as a result of the disorder, which is irreversible.
  • The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are quite variable and depend on the level of nerve damage as well as the specific nerves that have been affected.
  • Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs, usually on only one side of the body at a time, or in the legs and trunk of the patient

When performing specific neck actions, such as forward bending of the neck, you may experience electric shock sensations (Lhermitte sign).

  • Tremors, inability to coordinate, or an unsteady stride are all possible symptoms.

The urge to have sexual relations may diminish in both men and women at the same time (sexual dysfunction)

Individuals with severe MS may lose their ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience extended periods of remission without developing new symptoms. •

  • Multiple sclerosis is a chronic illness that cannot be cured.

On the other hand, treatments may help patients recover more quickly from episodes, modify the course of their condition, and regulate their symptoms.

SaaRthi Mobile Application

Why in the news?

  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has launched Saathi, a smartphone application that provides investors with investor education.
  • Concerning the APP:

    • It aims to educate investors on the fundamental concepts of the securities market. • It will also include information on the Know Your Customer (KYC) procedure, trading and settlement, Mutual Funds (MF), current market developments, and a method for resolving investor complaints.

    What was the reason for this?

    An increase in the number of individual investors who are entering the market has recently been observed. More significantly, an increasing percentage of trading is being handled using mobile phones.

    • According to NSE (National Stock Exchange) figures, individual investors’ share of the market will have increased to 45 percent in 2021 from 39 percent in 2020.
    • The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) is the country’s largest stock exchange.

    The Securities market is comprised of the following:

    Capital is raised through the sale of securities, which are financial instruments used to raise capital. The primary function of the securities markets is to facilitate the transfer of money from people in possession of it to people in need of it. The securities markets also facilitate the transfer of savings to investments, effectively decoupling these two activities.

    • As a result, savers and investors are no longer constrained by their own capacities, but rather by the economy’s ability to invest and save, which ultimately leads to an increase in savings and investment. For example, equity, debt, and other securities are all types of securities.

    The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a statutory organisation established on April 12, 1992, under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, with the primary purpose of protecting the interests of securities investors and developing and regulating the securities market. • SEBI’s Board of Directors is comprised of a Chairman and many other full- and part-time members. • SEBI also establishes numerous committees as needed to address critical concerns.

Gujarat High Court's digital activities

Why in the news?

  • Two new digital services for the Gujarat High Court have just been launched: a ‘Justice Clock’ and an electronic payment system for court fines and costs.

So, what is the point of the ‘Justice Clock’, exactly?

  • It is a 7-by-10-foot LED display that is suspended 17 feet above the ground and is located on the premises of the Supreme Court.
  • The ‘Justice Clock’ will display critical information about Gujarat’s justice delivery system in order to “increase the reach and visibility” of the state judiciary’s operations, according to the state government.

What exactly is an electronic court fee, and how will it help you in the long term?

  • attorneys and parties can obtain court stamps online and upon submission of a PDF receipt through the e-Courts fee system, which is accessible 24/7.

The relevance of these projects can be summarised in the following ways:

  • The two digital initiatives are in addition to a slew of other digital initiatives undertaken by the Gujarat High Court in response to Covid-19. • Digital transformation increases the transparency and openness of court procedures while also providing the general public with an insight into how judges work.

Is it necessary to digitise everything?

  • The general public’s impression of Indian courts is that they are slow to deliver justice and difficult to navigate for regular litigants. It is projected that technological advancements would fundamentally alter the administration of justice.

Efforts on the part of the judiciary When there is a pandemic:

  • In the aftermath of the outbreak, courts began to rely heavily on technology, like as electronic filing, to conduct their business.
  • In May 2020, the Supreme Court will also introduce another groundbreaking innovation: a new electronic filing and reference system that will be powered entirely by artificial intelligence.

It is the current Vision Document for Phase III of the e-Courts Project’s goal to close the digital gap that exists in the judiciary’s operations. According to the plan, India will have a court infrastructure that is “natively digital” and that reflects the impact of the internet on the country’s judicial schedule and thinking.

Artemis Program of NASA

Background:

The first moon-bound rocket and spacecraft of NASA’s Artemis programme are scheduled to undertake a “wet dress rehearsal” on the launch pad in February, according to the agency.

What and who is Artemis, and what is her significance?

Acceleration, reconnection, turbulence, and electrodynamics are all aspects of the Moon’s interaction with the Sun that Artemis studies.

  • It is NASA’s next lunar mission, and the goal of this experiment is to determine what happens when the Sun’s radiation reaches our rocky moon, which lacks a magnetic field to shield it from the effects of the radiation.
  • Artemis, the goddess of the Moon in Greek mythology, was Apollo’s twin sister and the goddess of the Moon.

The significance of the mission:

It is the goal of NASA’s Artemis mission to land the first woman on the Moon and then the first man on the Moon by 2024.

The mission’s specifics are as follows:

It will take nearly a quarter-million miles for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) to transfer humans on board the Orion spacecraft from Earth to lunar orbit.

astronauts will dock their spacecraft at the Gateway and be transported to a human landing system for lunar surface exploration.

  • They will return to the orbiting outpost to re-board Orion before making their way back to Earth in a safe manner.

Artemis 1, 2, and 3:

  • Two lunar orbital missions will be carried out by the agency in order to evaluate its deep space exploration technologies.

The crewed Artemis 2 mission to the moon in 2024 will be followed by an unmanned mission around the moon in 2025, followed by more crewed missions later in the 2020s, according to NASA. • Artemis 1 will launch an unmanned spacecraft around the moon using a combination of the never-flown Space Launch System rocket and the previously flown Orion spacecraft, according to NASA.

India and Denmark agreed to collaborate on developing green fuels

Why in News?

  • India and Denmark have agreed to work on green fuel research and development, including the creation of environmentally friendly hydrogen.

This collaborative study is a component of the Green Strategic Partnership’s Action Plan 2020-2025, which has already been established.

What is the Green Strategic Partnership between India and Denmark? What are the benefits of the Green Strategic Partnership?

  • The Green Strategic Partnership between India and Denmark was officially launched in September 2020 during a virtual summit between the two Prime Ministers of the countries.

Ultimately, the alliance is a win-win arrangement that will advance political collaboration while also growing economic links, encouraging green development while also creating jobs, and enhancing cooperation on global concerns and possibilities.

Among the four key sectors identified by the alliance are water, urban development, renewable energy, and intellectual property rights, each of which has been assigned to working groups in both countries. •

An action plan for joint action has also been prepared as a result of the collaboration.

  • According to the strategy, Danish companies armed with the required technology and knowledge would aid India in meeting its air pollution management objectives, notably in relation to the key issue of agricultural stubble burning.

Aside from that, the plan calls for joint efforts in water efficiency, the construction of India-Denmark energy parks, and the establishment of an India-Denmark skill centre to train the Indian workforce.

I’m not sure what this Green Strategic Partnership (GSP) is all about.

It highlights the two countries’ shared commitment to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations and contributing in the mitigation of the global climate problem.

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